In comparison we know that either system provides life sustaining water for consumption by both man and beast and the irrigation of plant based food sources. The major difference between to two systems would be the possible inconsistency of rainfall to maintain the needed water source and the fact that rainfall needs to be collected someway whereas a river based system can flow most of the time, unless there is a drought, and collection of the water requires minimal effort.
Ina river based system you have access to water all the time and therefore don’t worry about water but in a rain based system they have to worry about water all the time and come up with ways to preserve the water
Both systems provide water for the inhabitants.
The river-based system is more reliable and secure. The rain-based system is not. The river-based system provides the water without needing help from the people in the land. The rain-based system requires wells, cisterns–resources to store water. This requires human effort and upkeep.
The river-based water system would be a lot like the spring based water system. They both provide filtered water and are fairly easily set up.
The problem with both can be the distance to the river or spring itself. The home or village could be several miles away.
The Nile transports the water from many countries of east Africa to Egypt. It delivers the water from where there are more rain than Egypt. So water availability in Egypt is independent from the rain fall in that country. But Israel is depending on the yearly rain to have the water for use. The interesting passage of the Bible spoke about this: ” The land you are entering to take over is not like the land of Egypt, from which you have come, where you planted your seed and irrigated it by foot as in a vegetable garden. But the land you are crossing the Jordan to take possession of is a land of mountains and valleys that drinks rain from heaven. It is a land the Lord your God cares for; the eyes of the Lord your God are continually on it from the beginning of the year to its end” (Deuteronomy 11:10-12).
A river-based water system as in ancient Egypt based on the River Nile, usually meant that a supply of water was more readily available as long as it rained in Central Africa, which it usually did but not always. Farming would be by irrigation. On a rain-based water system, such as for ancient Israel, water availability was much less sure. Rainfall was limited by region, season, run-off and evaporation and could cease for years at a time.
In a river based water system, people would depend on the river for water. In a rain based system, the water came solely from the rain cycle. In this system the people’s source of water would be underground water tables that would get replenished each year. Both systems, do depend on the rain cycles. If the mountains of Central Africa did not receive adequate rain it could severely lessen the amount of water that traveled through the Nile. If it did not rain in the Promised Land, the water table would decrease and so would the wells and the springs.
Most of Egypt is dry and barren, and it is heavily dependent on the water brought by River Nile. If there is rain in Central Africa, Egypt will continue to receive water into the Nile River Valley and Nile Delta.
In contrast, Israel depends on its annual rainfall to supply water for its daily use. There is more rainfall in the North than in the south, and it is also seasonal. So, the rain helps them cultivate crops, green their pastures, and fill up their wells and ground.